Disclaimer: This page is created with intension to be an inaccessible page for educational purposes. It will be used by AT testers for a series on website accessibility. There is a companion page that is an accessible version.

Page Sections

Headings help navigate a page from the main identification of a page to the subcategories the page contains. A person with vision might scan the page with their site to see the page organization. For a person without sight using a screen reader, they hear the content on the page. This software provides a shortcut to review the page sections labeled as heading levels. 

One example of a screen reader is JAWS.

JAWS Screen Reader

Screen reading software delivers the content of the monitor through synthetic speech. The software is a voice output screen reading program that reads content and the structure of a web page, document, email and more.   In a web page, it reads headers and sub headers; table of contents, hyperlinks; a picture’s alt text description, and the content of the page. Screen reader users use a keyboard or Braille output device to navigate, but they do not use a mouse. Many operating systems used to access the web such as desk tops, tablets and smart phones, offer built in narration software.

Narration Program Examples:

Here are a few examples of a narration program:

Links

URL addresses come in all shapes and sizes. Web pages can be full of multiple URLs.  To create accessible links, they should be linked with descriptive text.  This allows the reader to know where the URL will take them. It allows choice of activating the link or moving on. Using a generic action to take does not provide a description of where the URL is going to take the reader.  Click here for more information

Tables

Tables are made up of columns and rows of data.  Connecting the dots to what row is associated with which column can be a visual task when lines are formed to share the content. A Screen reader needs some assistance to understanding how to read the data to the individual. A Table needs a table header row to identify what the topics of the rows of data are all about.

In 2024 WebAIM completed a survey of preferences of screen reader users. Of those that responded, they identified with the following disability types.

Reponse# Of RespondentsPercentage Of Respondents
Blindness117976.6%
Low Vision/Visually-Impaired30619.9%
Cognitive or Learning805.2%
Deafness/Hard-of-Hearing1046.8%
Motor342.2%
Other754.9%

Color Contrast

The following chart shows historical trends for primary screen reader usage.

Screen Reader Usage Chart

Reading Order

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